Causal relationships

We have provided two ways of summarizing the information about causal relationships contained in the publications.

First, we have given the values of the explanatory variables being studied together with the state of the law application.

Second, we have coded the author statements about the links between a particular explanatory factor and each stage of the compliance process. We have provded a summary of that purported relationship by a sign (negative, positive, zero) and we have included a longer citation from the publication to give more context. When certain variables are not being discussed with regard to certain stages of the compliance process, the cells in the table are empty.