Explanatory variables

In order to make comparisons between the articles easier, we have classified the explanatory factors in several broad categories. Here are the details:

 

Variable category

Variable

change of government

change of government

 

veto players                            

factual veto players

veto players

instrument-specific players

 

misfit                                     

institutional misfit

policy misfit

legal misfit

normative misfit

 

general adm capacity               

bureaucratic capacity

administrative overload

administrative reform

efficiency        

language skills

 

culture                                    

legal culture

administrative culture

political culture

 

directive features                       

clarity

discretion

complexity

scope

conflicting interpretations

 

EU enforcement                      

infringement

reports by the COM

preliminary ruling

financial threat

informal pressure

conditionality

ECJ ruling

 

 

EU-level conflict                      

overall conflict at the time of adoption

conciliation committee involvement

 

extraordinary events               

environmental crisis

terrorism

 

preferences                             

domestic opposition

preference configurations

domestic conflict

change of government

government support

 

NIM features

type

clarity

quality

scope

issue linkage

transposition technique

call back procedure

package law

 

Societal institutions

 

consultation and involvement of business actors

                                             involvement of environmental groups

                                             involvement of NGOs

                                             involvement of interest groups

                                             involvement of industry

                                             involvement of trade unions

                                             policy network

                                             involvement of trade unions and churches

 

 

 

coordination            

type

coordination strength   

coordination problems

 

specific organizational issues  

lack of resources

lack of qualified staff and expertise

supervision

 

national-level salience            

political salience

                                             issue salience

                                             media interest

                                             issue linkage

 

learning                                

experience

                                             cross-country learning

                                             single loop learning

 

federalism/regionalism           

distribution of competences

 

judicial enforcement                

litigation (preliminary rulings)

                                             availability of legal assistance

                                             access to judicial system

                                             fear of victimization

 
other                                     

size of regulated entities

                                             privatisation

                                             political costs of compliance

                                             change agents

                                             expected economic gains

                                             support building

                                             public support

                                             advocacy coalitions

                                             individual empowerment